SpaceX’s moment of triumph arrives as astronauts ready for US launch
New era begins as US space agency NASA uses private company for missionby AFP
Kennedy Space Centre: (AFP) A new era in space begins Wednesday with the launch by SpaceX of two NASA astronauts into space, a capability that for six decades symbolised the power of a handful of states, and which the United States itself had been deprived of for nine years.
If the bad weather clears, at 4:33pm (12.33am, Thursday, UAE time) a SpaceX rocket with the new Crew Dragon capsule on top will take off from Launch Pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center, the same from which Neil Armstrong and his Apollo crewmates left for their historic journey to the Moon.
Piloted by NASA astronauts Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley, it will head for the International Space Station.
How to watch the launch
When is the launch and how can I watch it?
The launch is scheduled to take place at Kennedy Space Center in Florida at 4:33pm ET (12.33am, Thursday, UAE time). NASA will stream the launch live on its website, YouTube and other platforms, starting a few hours earlier.
Who is blasting off?
The astronauts are Robert L. Behnken and Douglas G. Hurley, whom NASA selected to be astronauts in 2000.
They have each flown twice previously to orbit on space shuttle missions, although this is the first time they have worked together on a mission.
What are they flying in?
SpaceX has never taken people to space before. Its Crew Dragon is a gumdrop-shape capsule - an upgraded version of SpaceX's original Dragon capsule that has been used many times to carry cargo, but not people, to the space station.
It has space for up to seven people, but will have only four seats for NASA missions. If this launch succeeds, later in the year it is to ferry four astronauts to the space station.
When will the astronauts arrive at the space station?
The Crew Dragon is to arrive at the International Space Station 19 hours after launch. During that time, the astronauts will test flying the spacecraft and verify that the systems are performing as designed.
The flight is going ahead despite shutdowns caused by the coronavirus pandemic. The two men have been in quarantine for the past two weeks.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp. was founded in 2002 by a Mars-obsessed entrepreneur determined to break the rules of the aerospace industry’s game, Elon Musk.
Gradually, it has earned the trust of the planet’s largest space agency.
By 2012, it had become the first private company to dock a cargo capsule at the ISS, resupplying the station regularly ever since.
Two years later, NASA ordered the next step: to transport its astronauts there, starting in 2017, by adapting the Dragon capsule.
“SpaceX would not be here without NASA,” said Musk last year, after a successful dress rehearsal without humans for the trip to the ISS.
The space agency paid more than $3 billion for SpaceX to design, build, test and operate its reusable capsule for six future space round trips.
The development has experienced delays, explosions, and parachute problems - but even so SpaceX has beaten the aviation giant Boeing to the punch.
NASA is also paying Boeing to build its own capsule, the Starliner, which is still not ready.
The move by NASA to invest in privately-developed spacecraft - a more economic proposition than spending tens of billions of dollars developing such systems itself, as it had done for decades - was started under the presidency of George W. Bush for cargo, and later under Barack Obama for human flight.
“Some have said it is unfeasible or unwise to work with the private sector in this way. I disagree,” Obama said in 2010 at the Kennedy Space Center.
At the time, there was immense hostility in Congress and NASA to the start-up’s claims of what it could achieve.
Trump to attend
A decade on it is another president, Donald Trump, who will attend Wednesday’s launch in Florida.
The Republican is trying to reaffirm American domination of space, militarily but also by having ordered a return to the Moon in 2024.
If NASA could entrust “low Earth orbit” space travel to the private sector, it would free up dollars for its more distant missions.
“We envision a future where low Earth orbit is entirely commercialized where NASA is one customer of many customers,” said Jim Bridenstine, the agency’s administrator.
“If we keep using American taxpayer dollars ... we’ll never get to the Moon and on to Mars.”
It has rained a lot in Florida in recent days, and Cape Canaveral forecasters estimated Tuesday the risk of unfavourable weather on Wednesday at 40 per cent
If necessary, the flight will be postponed to Saturday.
Crew Dragon is a capsule like Apollo, but updated for the 21st century.
Touch screens have replaced switches. The interior is dominated by white, more subtle lighting.
It looks entirely different to the enormous space shuttles, huge winged vehicles that carried astronauts into space from US soil from 1981 to 2011.
“We’re expecting a smooth ride but we’re expecting a loud ride,” said Behnken, who, like Hurley, also flew in the shuttles twice.
Unlike the shuttles, one of which - the Challenger - exploded in 1986 after take-off, Dragon can eject in an emergency if the Falcon 9 rocket has a problem.
Crew Dragon will catch up with the station on Thursday at an altitude of 400km, and will probably remain docked there until August.
If it fulfils its mission and is certified safe, it will mean the Americans will no longer depend on the Russians for access to space: since 2011, the Russian Soyuz rockets were the only space taxis available.
Launches will become a regular occurrence in Florida again, with four astronauts aboard.
A Japanese astronaut is set to be on the following trip. NASA would like a Russian cosmonaut to join next.